Overview of the International Space Station cabin environment as an analog for exploration-type missions: A view from aerospace medicine:
Generalidades del ambiente de cabina de la Estación Espacial Internacional como análogo para misiones de tipo exploración: una visión desde la medicina aeroespacial:;
Visão geral do ambiente da cabine da Estação Espacial Internacional como um análogo para missões do tipo exploração: Uma visão da medicina aeroespacial:
Malpica Hincapie, Diego Leonel
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AbstractThe health and safety of astronauts on space exploration missions depends on the environment they inhabit, and survival in extreme environments requires robust systems that provide protection and an atmosphere that allows them to perform normally in a hostile environment. It is important, then, to understand the close relationship of life support systems, and the impact on the wellbeing of those working in confined space with minimal resource and energy utilization. The objective of this review is to describe the environmental control and life support systems of the International Space Station, and to relate the impact on the astronauts’ health and psychophysical performance if they do not function normally. Scopus, Ovid, arXiv.org, SAGE, BioMed, ClincalKey, Pro-Quest, EBSCO, SpringerLink, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Pubmed databases are searched, integrating the environmental control and life support system with pathophysiological phenomena in case of emergency. We collected 649 references with the search strategies and subtracted those that were repeated (445) and whose full text was not obtained (133), with a total of 71 references for analysis. The habitation characteristics of the International Space Station are discussed in terms of quality and quantity of available air, gas composition, oxygen and nitrogen production, carbon dioxide scavenging and its effects on the astronaut under microgravity conditions. In addition, toxicological effects, microbiological environment, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation exposure monitoring are explored. Future space exploration type missions will require robust environmental monitoring systems with low risk of failure and likely use of in situ resources.
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